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Who were the Directors?

  • Photographs of several of the directors.
  • Photographs and a video from the September 2004 reception honoring Robert C. F. Bartels, the first director of the UM Computing Center.
 

1.4 Aaron Finerman (UM)

posted May 27, 2014, 8:55 PM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Aug 26, 2016, 6:09 PM ]

ACM Fellows, United States – 1994
CITATION: In recognition of his extensive and productive participation in the management of professional society policies and operations. Dr. Finerman has been actively involved in the Space Program and other technical activities worldwide in addition to his years of service to such organizations such as SHARE, AFIPS, and ACM.
 

Aaron Finerman in J. A. N. Lee's Computer Pioneers, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995, ISBN: 0-8186-6357-X. HTML version maintained by the IEEE Computer Society. A PDF is also available.

"IBM Witness Rebuts Damaging Testimony", in Computerworld, 28 May 1979, page 7.









From the Detroit Free Press, April 14, 1994


1.3 Allen (Al) R. Emery (UM)

posted May 27, 2014, 7:21 AM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Oct 5, 2014, 7:09 AM ]

1.2 Richard (Dick) Phillips (UM)

posted May 25, 2014, 6:42 PM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Oct 5, 2014, 7:08 AM ]

1.1 Robert Bartels (UM)

posted May 20, 2014, 8:53 PM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Oct 5, 2014, 7:08 AM ]

7.1 Frank Westervelt (UM and WSU)

posted May 20, 2014, 2:27 PM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Aug 8, 2015, 8:47 AM ]

A biographical article about Franklin H. Westervelt in Wikipedia.


From the U-M Computing Center Newsletter, Volume 1, Number 2, page 2, 21 January 1971:




Frank's Obituary in the Ann Arbor News, 31 July 2015.

Westervelt, Franklin 3/26/1930 - 7/29/2015 Ann Arbor

Dr. Franklin Herbert Westervelt passed away on July 29, 2015. He died peacefully at his Ann Arbor home, attended by his daughter, Wendy, his caregiver. He was born in Benton Harbor, MI, on March 26, 1930, the son of Herbert Oleander Westervelt and Dorothy Ulbright Westervelt. Franklin received degrees in Mathematics, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering from the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan. He attained his PhD in 1961 and was an Associate Director of the U of M Computing Center. He was a professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Wayne State University, where he served as Director of the Computing Center and Chairman of the ECE department. He was part of the team that developed the MERIT network, linking computers at U of M, MSU and Wayne State University, an early "internet" between the three state universities. Franklin was a wonderful husband and father. He was a master of home projects from decks and boathouse doors to swing-and-slide sets and sandboxes. He also supported strongly the family wildlife sanctuaries in both the Ann Arbor and Traverse City areas, and devoted many weekend hours improving and enjoying them. Franklin is survived by his son and daughter-in-law, Andy and Linda (McCarren); their four children Renee, Eric, Laura and Peter; his daughter, Wendy; his nephew and his wife James and Aida (Datuon) Ednie; and his faithful Lhasa Apso, Merlin. Franklin was preceded in death by his loving and beloved wife of 65 years, Louise (Andrews) Westervelt; his sister-in-law and brother-in-law Frances (Andrews) and William Ednie, and one niece Linda Ednie.

August 02, 2015: I worked with Frank for many years at the UM Computing Center where he was a good friend and a great role model. He had far more influence on the success of the Computing Center in the 60s and 70s than most people realize. We will all miss him. --Mike Alexander, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

August 02, 2015: I worked with Frank when he was at Wayne State University and I was at the Merit Network. He will be missed. There is a biographical article about him and his many contributions to computing and education on Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_H._Westervelt. --Jeff Ogden, Ann Arbor, Michigan

August 03, 2015: Frank came to Wayne State University in 1970 to become director of our Computing Center. It was great to have a man of his stature come to our center. He brought the MTS computer operating system to Wayne, and I enjoyed working for him and with him. He had an open-door policy of directing the Computing Center, and I often walked in to discuss an issue with him. My sympathies go to his family and friends. --Jim Simmons, Madison Heights, Michigan

August 07, 2015: I worked with and for Dr Frank Westervelt at the WSU College of Engineering electronics shop until his retirement. He displayed an exuberance as yet unmatched by anyone. I will always remember his after-hours visits to us shop technicians and the very interesting stories and subjects he brought to us. My condolences go to all who knew and loved him. --Randy Szabla, Farmington Hills, Michigan

7. Wayne State University (WSU)

posted Apr 24, 2014, 5:32 AM by Jeff Ogden

From: "James F. Simmons"
To: "Jeff Ogden"
Cc: mts-comments@umich.edu
Sent: Monday, February 20, 2012 12:34:18 PM
Subject: MTS Archive Discussions -- Who were the Directors? -- WSU

Hi, Jeff.  These are my comments and corrections for your WSU paragraph.  My sources are Robert Monroe's booklet and my memory.

I recall that the name was indeed "Wayne State University Computing Center" from about 1957 to 1962. However, Bob's booklet does not list that name.  Perhaps it was the informal name only.  I suggest that you title the paragraph "Wayne State University Computing and Data Processing Center", which was the name from 1962 to 1977.  That interval included the beginning of MTS use in fall 1970.

Below I list the line items that should be changed or added.  Other line items are correct as they stand.

Walter Hoffman, Assistant Director, 1954?-1957, Acting Director, 1957-1959, Director, 1959-1962.
Computing and Data Processing Center (CDPC), 1962-1977
Walter Hoffman, Director, 1962-1969
(If you want to include all Associate and Assistant Directors:)
    Charles Briggs, Associate Director, 1962-about 1974
    Roger Hardenbergh, Assistant Director, 1962-1972
    Robert Monroe, Assistant (later Associate) Director, mid 1960s-1982
    Robert Jones, Associate Director, about 1968-late 1970s
Robert Hubbard, Acting Director, 1969-1970
Frank Westervelt, Director, fall 1970-1982
Computing Services Center (CSC), 1977-1982
Roger Nys, Acting Director, 1982
Computing & Information Technology division (C&IT), 1982-present
Mort Rahimi, Director, 1982-early 1990s

    Jim

4.1 Jack Leigh (UBC)

posted Dec 22, 2013, 4:31 PM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Dec 22, 2013, 4:32 PM ]

I stumbled across this 14 September 2011 article about Jack Leigh and networking at UBC:

http://www.northshoreoutlook.com/community/129825238.html

© 2011 Copyright Black Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Networking before the ’net

West Vancouver
West Vancouver's Jack Leigh.  — image credit: Rob Newell photo

posted Sep 14, 2011 at 12:00 PM

Discussing how pervasively the Internet has affected society is a quick way of either revealing one’s age or winning top prize in the who-can-craft-the-most-obvious-statement competition.

But when sitting down for a cup of coffee with West Vancouver’s Jack Leigh, surrounded by folks using iPads and iPhones to check their latest emails, such an observation may not be so out of place. Leigh, you see, was one of the few people involved in bringing the now-omnipresent internet to Canada.

In those days, of course, the work he was involved in was far from the graphic-laden service we’ve come to expect. The task, at the very beginning, was figuring out a way to connect the University of British Columbia’s mainframe to computer terminals at other ends of the campus.

“At UBC, in about 1969, we [university computing staff] were working with the University of Michigan to build a network as it were,” says Leigh.

“The original intent was to build an operating system to work with IBM’s equipment. The IBM hardware was the first to support terminals, but their operating system just wouldn’t do it.”

Soon after, the Michigan Terminal System was born. With the newfound network, remote on-campus terminals could display the data the mainframe created. Those who worked locally on the system, says Leigh, were proud of what they accomplished but as the world of technology has a tendency to do, larger projects would soon take precedence.

By the early 1980s, Leigh says he and his colleagues at the university knew “the value of data networks that had a longer reach” and set out to connect post-secondary institutions  — all of which were using localized networks such as the MTS — to share research and support a wide range of projects.

And the result? The still-in-use BC Net, an inter-institutional network used by Simon Fraser University, the University of Victoria and UBC, amongst others. Launched in 1987, the establishment of BC Net would mark the arrival of the first regional network in the country, followed quickly by similar initiatives in Ontario and other provinces.

Getting BC Net off the ground, however, didn’t come hiccup-free. Leigh says the project lost a year because those working on the network were forced to wait for the green light from Ottawa to use microwave frequencies to connect the mainland to Vancouver Island with wireless communications.

“We needed government approval as we weren’t allowed to use the frequencies,” says Leigh.

“There’s a line of sight from UBC to an island, which has a line of sight to Vancouver Island. That’s why we wanted to use a wireless connection. But we didn’t get approval and lost a year waiting.”

As regional networks began popping up across the country, Leigh says musings on how to connect each region in a cross-Canada network were gaining momentum.

The first meeting to discuss a national Internet was held at UBC and focused on general principles and how to secure funding for such a big job. The National Research Council kicked in $2.5 million to pay for the work and after fielding a handful of proposals, the University of Toronto, in partnership with a Vancouver-based communications company, won the bid.

To run the national network, those involved in the planning launched CA Net in 1990. CA NET was quickly absorbed into CANARIE, a newly formed government board established to fund the next cross-country network. Although placed under the CANARIE umbrella — CANARIE provided a host of services such as providing firms with funding for technology-related research — CA Net continued to operate the new cross-Canada network. Like BC Net, its users were primarily universities and research labs.

In 1997, in step with the growing interest from telephone companies in the Internet, CAN Net was turned over to Bell. Leigh says he was the only dissenting voice on the CA Net board.

“There was still more to do,” says Leigh, matter-of-factly.

But, in a year’s time he would retire. A 32-year tenure at UBC, the last 12 years spent as the university’s head of computing, had provided more ground-breaking moments than most see in their professional lives. Sure, he wanted to do more. And, like most jobs, there were mistakes and holdups along the way.

But every now and then, there’s a moment in Leigh’s day where he realizes he played a role in the most all-encompassing technological entity society has ever seen.

“I’m amazed at how fast it’s advanced. Being chosen as a torchbearer was a one-and-a-half year process where I only spoke to a person once. It was all electronic communication,” he says.

“But when I talk to people at the university, they’re still dealing with the same problems we were 40 years ago. The software is still behind the hardware just like our issue with the IBM.”

skolenko@northshoreoutlook.com

twitter.com/seankolenko


2.2 Sad news of John Lindley's passing (DUR)

posted Dec 16, 2013, 6:49 AM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Oct 5, 2014, 7:11 AM ]

Photo of four former ITS Directors
John Lindley at the lower right, with
Iain Stinson, Lesley Beddie,  and
Jackie Bettess in October 2004

Subject:    Very sad news
Date:        Wed, 03 Jul 2013 09:26:29 +0100
 
Dear friends of John,
 
It is with great sadness that we write to you to inform you of the death of John Lindley [former director of the computer service at Durham University in the days of MTS].  He passed away peacefully after a short illness on Wednesday 26th June. We apologise if we have not managed to contact you before now and that this is the first you have heard, but we as a family are absolutely devastated.
 
We wish to pass on the arrangements for John's funeral and thanksgiving service which will be held on Friday 12th July and please know that you are all welcome.
 
There will be a short committal service at 2pm in St. Bede's Chapel, Teesside Crematorium, Acklam Road, Middlesbrough, TS5 7HD.  Following that we will be holding a service of thanksgiving for John's life at 3pm in Nunthorpe Methodist Church, Connaught Road, Nunthorpe, Middlesbrough, TS7 0AN.  After the service please join us for afternoon tea in the church hall.
 
Traditional black is not necessary.  In lieu of flowers, donations in John's name can be made towards a charity to be decided in due course.  If you wish to donate this can be done at church or direct to Hilda House, Funeral Directors, Dalby Way, Parkway Centre, Coulby Newham, Middlesbrough, TS8 0TW.  (01642 596600)
 
With best wishes,
 
Beryl, Bridget and Sarah.



From: Tony Young
Subject: John Lindley Funeral
Date: July 14, 2013 10:28:17 AM EDT
To: Gavin Eadie

Gavin,

I did get a brief opportunity to mention your note and sympathy to John's wife, Beryl, and also to the small band of (mostly ex-) computing colleagues who came to the funeral. Actually there were 2 services, a short committal service at the Crematorium and then a longer thanksgiving service with a capacity congregation at his large modern local Methodist Church (John was apparently connected with many local institutions), with 'tea' after and opportunity to meet old friends and colleagues.

Several of the old colleagues who were there will have joined after you left Durham, but some (eg Mike Ellison) you may have met at later Workshops. I only went to the latter thanksgiving service so didn't see see Brian Jones (ex-N'cle), Mike Ellison, and Roger Gawley who only went to the Crematorium service. Elizabeth Barraclough made the 2hr drive over from the Lake District to attend, and others there who you may or may not remember/know were, Dave Thornton, Bob Williams, Clive Bowery, Barbara Smith, Cathy Thompson (who you may remember as Catherine Venters, the tall Physics research assistant who used the 1130 and the 360/67 a lot) and Josephine Coleman (wife of Maths lecturer John Coleman, who in your time was one of the part-time advisers for the Computer Science undergraduate practical sessions).  A very pleasant ending to a very sad occasion!

I only managed a very brief chat to Beryl but understand that the otherwise very fit John had felt unwell, and had gone to GP only for tests to quickly show that he had advanced cancer in stomach which had spread; he died only a few weeks later.

Hope all is well with you - good to hear from you again.
Tony



Here is a link to John's obituary in the September to November issue of the Memo, a newsletter of the Middlesbrough & Eston Methodist Church.



Here is a link to a 15 March 2013 article / speech by John "On the Occasion of the 200th Anniversary of the Birth of Dr John Snow" which also happens to give a bit of John's own history.

2.1 Directors at NUMAC, Newcastle and Durham

posted Aug 20, 2013, 12:51 PM by David Lee   [ updated Jun 16, 2014, 1:39 PM by Jeff Ogden ]

The information about directors at NUMAC needs to be more subtle, because NUMAC was a bridging entity across three institutions that were themselves independent: University of Newcastle upon Tyne (NCL), University of Durham (DUR) and Newcastle Polytechnic (NPY).

I don't guarantee that the details below are absolutely correct:  Tony Young should be able to give much better accuracy about the Durham end of things (and probably also be able to provide details about NCL and NUMAC).

Each institution had its own organisation.  Newcastle had its Computing Laboratory (joint service and academic Comp.Sci.).  Durham had separate groups (Computer Unit for service; Computing Department academic) but under the joint leadership of John Hawgood.  Soon after that, probably 1980, the two groups at Durham split into two departments.  John Hawgood went to the academic side, and the late John Lindley was appointed to head the service-oriented Computer Unit.

At this point I switch to focus just on Durham Computer Unit.  Our line of succession is accurately given in the caption to Jeff Ogden's photo:

http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/lAt3U1VDY7LBV_1TwcaVy3ekHHD7WlB8y6FluX1BTf0

The relevant extracts from that for MTS would be:

John Hawgood (1968-1980)
John Lindley (1981-1994)

Those dates feel about right.

Tony Young was Deputy Director during (I think) all of that period.

During the 1980s, Durham gradually gained its own independence, starting with a NUMAC upgrade (note: still joint NUMAC)  granting us our own IBM 4341, and Newcastle a something or other: it might have been their first Amdahl.  Despite the growing independence, the ties still remained strong.  (Indeed, way into the late 1990s, long after both MTS had gone and the NUMAC organisation had been formally dissolved, we still compared notes and co-operated on various things (in my case, email configs and user registration procedures).)

Along the way, the Computer Unit changed name several times.  Sorry, I don't have dates for those.

-- David Lee
-- Durham Computer Unit (and its variously named successors) 1979-2009.



From http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/paintings/ewan-page-26703 :


Ewan Page, 120 x 120 cm oil on canvas by Paul Brason (1990) in the University of Reading Art Collection

6. Merit Network, a timeline arranged by person, institution, event, and thing (1963-2006)

posted Mar 13, 2012, 12:22 PM by Jeff Ogden   [ updated Apr 24, 2014, 5:57 AM ]

While Merit was and is separate from the U-M Computing Center, there was a close working relationship between the Merit and UMCC staff.  The article that follows captures information about many individuals at or associated with Merit.



From Karl Zinn: (http://www-personal.umich.edu/~karlzinn/merit%20HoF%20intro%20topical.rtf)

Merit Timeline rearranged by person, institution, event, and thing (1963-2006)
last rev.  last revised 10 am 3 Nov. 2006

Individuals [presently 49; I could make this list longer]

Eric Aupperle
- (1968) hired as a senior engineer and begins search for hardware with which to connect computers.
- (1974) becomes second director of MERIT.
- (2001) retires as President after 27 years.
- (2003) named Alumni Medal Recipient by Alumni Society of UM's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

Paul Bosco
- (1987) manager of the team at IBM responsible for building routing systems, adapters, and technologies for the NSFNET backbone service.

Larry Bouman
- (1987) MCI's Senior Vice-President for Network Operations, and contributor to NSFNET.

Hans-Werner Braun
- (1983) leads effort which connects Merit’s network with ARPANET, implementing the TCP/IP protocol suite within the infrastructure of PCPs and SCPs.

Al Cocanower
- (1969-71) heads the team which does the software design for the communications computers built by Applied Dynamics (CCOS, communications computer operating system)

Sue Coleman
- (1973) hired as the network’s first technical support consultant.

Dale Johnson
- (1988) manages Network Operations Center staffed 24/7 at UM Computer Center Building.

Jack Drescher
- (1988-89) Initial on-site Project Manager for IBM at Merit for the NSFNET project.

Gavin Eadie
- (1979-80) develops first email exchange program for sending email directly among host sites as part of the The "Mailnet" project with MIT and a few other universities.

Harry Eick
- (1969) appointed associate director of Merit for MSU applications.

John Engler, Governor of Michigan, 1990-2002(?)
- (2002)  announces plan for the Michigan Information Technology Center (MITC), the new home of Merit and lnternet2.

Stanford Ericksen, University of Michigan Professor of Psychology
- (1964) asked by Heyns to write a brief proposal for a statewide learning center.
- (1964) asks Zinn to add a paragraph on technology.
- (1965) with Zinn sets up Inter-University Committee on Instructional Use of Computers (IUCIUC).
- (1966) UM representative to MICIS (as Director of the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at UM).

Wayne Fischer
- (1969) on the team which did the software design for the communications computers built by Applied Dynamics (CCOS, communications computer operating system)

Harvey Fraser
- (1989) on-site Project Manager for IBM at Merit for the NSFNET project.

Elise Gerich
- (1988) member of the original Merit team for NSFNET.
- (1990?) Associate Director for National Networking.
- (1994) Manager of Internet Engineering Group.

Bertram Herzog
- (1968) hired to coordinate grant proposals when associate director of ConComp.
- (1968) named first director of MERIT, and shares office space with ConComp at 611 Church Street.
- (1974) Herzog returns to teaching.

Roger Heyns, University of Michigan Vice President
- (1964) inspired by innovative ideas in State report on higher education, asks Ericksen to write a brief proposal for a statewide learning center.

Ellen Hoffman
- (1988) member of the original Merit team for NSFNET.
- (1991-93) manages Merit's Network Information Services group.

Walter Hoffman
- (1966) WSU representative to MICIS (as Director of the WSU Computing Center).
- (1967) with Zinn and Kateley makes visit to NSF to talk with Melmed.

Robert E. Hubbard
- (1968) with Zinn and Kateley rewrites the proposal to NSF
- (1966-76) WSU's initial Merit Board member (as Executive Director of Educational Services at WSU)

Robert Husak
- (1975?) with others, implements PCP hardware; implements direct terminal support

Julian Kateley
- (1966) MSU representative to MICIS (as Associate Director of the MSU Computer Lab).
- (1967) with Zinn and Hoffman makes visit to NSF to talk with Melmed.
- (1969) appointed associate director of Merit for MSU applications.

Jamie Kenworthy
- (1987-88) at state Department of Commerce working on the Michigan Strategic Fund and arranged support of the proposal for NSFNET in a significant way which helped obtain the funding from NSF.

Mark Knopper
- (1980) with Allan Rubens does much of the work on Merit's IP implementation.
- (1991) succeeds Hans-Werner Braun as Manager of the Internet Engineering Group at Merit.

Gregg Marks
- (1987) leads the proposal development team for NSFNET.
- (1994) sets up and manages K-12 MichNet.

Bob Mazza
- (1987) leads the IBM component of the NSFNET project.

Michael R. McPherson
- (2004) named Merit’s Interim President and CEO.

Arthur Melmed, program manager at the National Science Foundation
- (1967) discourages support for collaboration on learning materials and encourages development of the part of the proposal on interconnection of different computers (IBM, CDC, Burroughs).
- (1969) moves proposal through to official award, and remains primary contact during initial development of the network.

James Miller, Director of the University of Michigan's Mental Health  Research Institute
- (1965?) founder of Educom.
- (1966) member of original MICIS group.
- (1966) with Smith meets with Romney to seek network funding.

Milton E. Muelder, VP at MSU
- (1966) member of the original MICIS group.

Bill Norton
- (1996) leader of Internet Engineering Group
- NANOG coordinator

Jeff Ogden
- (1990) leader of Michigan-based networking activities (MichNet)
- (1998?) manager of high speed operations

Charles Overberger, VP Research at U of M
- (1974) replaces Smith as UM representative on Merit Board.

Robert Parnes
- (1975) with Zinn, develops computer conferencing system at CRLT which becomes a major tool for Merit staff and users, as well as an application for users.

John W. Porter, assistant to Romney and later Superintendent of Public Instruction
- (1966) writes to Smith that Romney was seeking $565,000 as a line item for a new network project.
- (1966-68) sat in on MICIS meetings, providing state perspective.

Brian Reed
- (1969) on the team which does the software design for the communications computers built by Applied Dynamics (CCOS, communications computer operating system)

George Romney, Michigan Governor
- (1963) charges blue ribbon committee to report on higher education.
- (1966) meets with with Smith and Miller who are seeking network funding.

Allan Rubins
- (1975?) with others, implements direct terminal support
-  X.25 implementation

Alan F. Smith, VP for Academic Affairs at U of M (later Acting President)
- (1966-74) chairs MICIS.
- (1966-74) organizes Merit as a non-profit organization, UM's initial representative on the Merit Board, and elected president.
- (1969) negotiates with the State for the release of $400,000 allocated during previous years.
- (1972) secures third $200,000 from the State for Merit operating costs.

Stanley Stynes
- (1976) replaces Hubbard as WSU representative on Merit Board

Douglas Van Houweling, Vice Provost for IT at UM, now president of Internet 2
- (1984) UM's representative on Merit Board of Directors, and chairman.
- (1987-88) facilitated Merit's proposal for NSFNET.
- (1987-88) working with Kenworthy at state Department of Commerce, obtained significant funding for NSFNET from the Michigan Strategic Fund.

Lawrence Von Tersh
- (1974) replaces Muelder as MSU representative on the Merit Board

Al Weis
- (1987) IBM representative in planning and executing NSFNET.
- (1990) President, Advanced Network & Services.

Donald J. Welch
- (2006) named President and CEO of Merit Network, Inc.

Christine Wendt
- (1975) succeeds Coleman as technical support consultant, and introduces use of CONFER for support of users.
- (1976) writes first manual for HERMES (user interface software).

Frank Westervelt
- (1966) UM representative to MICIS, as Associate Director of UM Computing Center .
- (1964-68) Principal Investigator of ConComp project.
- (1968-71) Directs ComComp staff that built UM's data concentrator.
- (1972) director of computing at WSU

Walter Wiebe
- (1987-88) the IBM Academic Information Systems networking senior manager responsible for the NSFNET program, including hardware, software, network engineering, and field support.
 
Hunt Williams
- (2001) becomes Merit’s new President.

Seymour Wolfson, Math Professor at WSU
- (1969) appointed associate director of Merit for WSU applications.

Karl Zinn, U of M Research Scientist at CRLT
- (1963) attends summer institute on technology in education at Stanford University, writing plan for technology supporting community of students, teachers, authors, and researchers.
- (1964) adds paragraph on technology to a brief proposal for a statewide learning center, and later writes full proposal for collaboration on instructional use of computers in the state aided by electronic connections.
- (1965) with Ericksen sets up Inter-University Committee on Instructional Use of Computers (IUCIUC) and drafts proposal for consideration by members of the IUCIUC.
- (1966) attends the Educom Summer Study of Information Networks and works with JCR Licklider and others on plans for a network in Michigan which would be linked to a national network.
- (1967) with MICIS members writes proposal to NSF for network collaboration among authors of computer-based instructional materials in the state; then goes to Frank Westervelt at the UM ConComp Project (Conversational use of Computers) for assistance with the rewrite of the proposal to meet Melmed's request for research on network technology.
- (1968) obtains NSF grant for sharing programming languages among universities in the state.
- (1969) appointed associate director of Merit for UM applications and obtains DOE grant for study of collaborative development of instructional use of computers.
- (1971) obtains EEF grant for extending host computer applications to colleges in the state.
- (1981)  surveys instructional computing at the host institutions, with attention to collaboration, and reaffirms original purpose of the network as proposed to the state 17 years before.


Institutions and organizations [presently 15.  Karl could fill out descriptions and add more dates; also on rereading some of the history articles Karl could add more organizations; otherwise this short list might better be combined with "things"]

Applied Dynamics Division of Reliance Electric in Saline, Michigan
- (1970) builds the first communications computer systems.

State of Michigan
- (1963) Governor George Romney charges blue ribbon committee to report on higher education.
- (1964) Legislators receive abbreviated proposal for a statewide learning center.
- (1965) Legislators invite a full proposal on just the technology part, remarking about making a contribution to the state’s educational and economic development.
- (1967) State approves $200,000 of what is requested, but subject to matching funds from another source.
- (1968) State commits additional $200,000 for computer network, restating requirement for matching funds.
- (1969) Legislature releases funding of $400,000, matching that from NSF.
- (1972) Legislature grants MERIT additional $200,000.

Inter-University Committee on Instructional Use of Computers (IUCIUC)
- (1965) set up by Ericksen and Zinn, with representation from most universities in the State.
- (1966) discusses variety of resources and means for instructional computing.
- (1967) with the University of Michigan submits proposal to the state.
- (1968) replaced by MICIS.

lnternet2
- (1996)  a collaborative effort of 34 research universities to build the next generation Internet 100 times faster than network speeds of the day.
- (2000) Merit provides K-12 schools and other educational organizations access to lnternet2.

Lambda rail
- (2003) Merit announces new regional fiber rings and participates in planning Michigan Lambda Rail (MiLR).

Michigan Department of State
- (2000) Merit provides Internet connectivity for MDS services through customer service kiosks in shopping malls.

Michigan Public Service Commission
- (1996) approves funding for SupportNet, Merit’s training and help desk.

Michigan Teacher Network
- (2002) Digital video collection, aligned to curriculum standards in MTN, established as part of the National Science Digital Library.

Michigan’s Teacher Technology (laptop) initiative
- (2000) Merit provides dial-in service through all hardware vendors participating.

MichNet
-  (1992) connects Michigan Bell Packet Switching Network in the Upper Peninsula.
- (1994) K-12 outreach program creates six regional K-12 groups, called Hubs, which allow users to connect using dial-in service.
- (1996)  92% of Michigan residents now have Internet access with a local phone call to one of MichNet's 131 shared dial-in sites.
- (1999) first MichNet annual meeting held at CMU in Mt. Pleasant.
- (2000) provides local call access to 98% of Michigan population.
- (2003) MichNet engineers adapt standard optical switch, splitting single wavelengths into two to reduce costs and double bandwidth capacity on metropolitan fiber rings.

MICIS, the Michigan Interuniversity Committee on Information Systems
- (1968) formed by the universities in the state as the informal IUCIUC is dissolved.
- (1967) submits proposal to NSF for network collaboration among authors of computer-based instructional materials in the state.
- (1968) submits proposal to NSD for interconnection of different computers (IBM, CDC, Burroughs) with applications to be funded separately, and establishes MERIT, Inc.

MERIT (Michigan Education, Research and Information Triad)
- (1968) is formed by the three largest universities in the State (MSU, UM, WSU).
- (1971) MERIT Advisory Committee is formed:  three university computing center directors, three MERIT Associate Directors, Aupperle and Herzog.
- (1998) Merit Advisory Council established to increase communication between affiliates and Merit Board.

MiCTA
 - (1995) endorses Merit/MichNet as its Internet Service Provider.
- (1998) re-endorses Merit as Internet Service Provider for Michigan.
- (2000) endorses Merit for third time as MiCTA’s Internet Service Provider for Michigan.

National Science Foundation
- (1968) receives proposal to support development of a prototype network linking computers from different vendors.
- (1969) grants $400,000 of the $1 million requested for the prototype network.
- (1987)  solicits proposals for NSFNET Backbone Network.
- (1992) funds MichNet backbone upgrade.

Ontario Research Innovation Optical Network (ORION)
- (2003) signs agreement with Merit to interconnect across the border and collaborate on advanced technologies.
- (2006) with Merit interconnects high-speed optical research and education networks.

Events [presently 36.  Charlie might pin down what is an event and what just goes on the timeline, or is provided as part of the description of an organization]

July 8, 1971, test between the communication computers at UM and MSU.

October 26, 1971, test between communications computer and host computer.

November 16, 1971, test host-to-host communication.

December 14, 1971, First demo at 12:20 a.m. when a user displays graphics resulting from interaction between programs running separately on computers at WSU and UM.

May 15, 1971, dedication at MSU’s Kellogg Center. Thomas Owen, NSF, calls MERIT “... an outstanding achievement in developing an integrated linkage of computer centers and, as such, a prototype of future networks.”

1972, Regular network service between UM and WSU most afternoons.

October 2, 1972, test the MSU node and demo MERIT at the EDUCOM conference in Ann Arbor.  Herzog, Aupperle and Zinn give presentations.

May 15, 1973, dedication at MSU’s Kellogg Center. Thomas Owen, NSF, calls MERIT “... an outstanding achievement in developing an integrated linkage of computer centers and, as such, a prototype of future networks.”

1976, Use of CONFER supports and encourages applications of the network.  CONFER is one of the first computer-based conferencing systems, and was developed at CRLT where the first network proposal was written in 1964.

1976, Merit interconnects with Telenet, providing dial-in access from major cities in North America and, eventually, across the world.

1977, CONFER is used via the network to plan a conference of the International Society for Technology Assessment, and to follow up the onsite discussions in the months following the conference in Ann Arbor.

1978, MERIT interconnects with Telenet by which users dial in from locations around the United States.

1978, Western Michigan University (WMU) joins MERIT, expanding the network beyond the triad of the three charter universities.

1978, Merit’s network becomes the first to support both a connection-based protocol suite (X.25) and the connectionless TCP/IP suite.

1979, Western Michigan University becomes the fourth member.

1980, Merit implements X.25 protocol support for connections to Telenet and other X.25 networks and hosts.

1982, The first Secondary Communications Processor (SCP) is built.

1983, Secondary Communication Processor installed at the Michigan Union to create UMnet.

1983, Eight Primary Communication Processor’s and 35 Secondary Communication Processors serve eight host computers on Merit’s four Member university campuses.

1983, Network Operations Center established to monitor network performance, deal with outages, load software updates, and report performance statistics.

1984, Merit introduces outbound service to Telenet and Autonet, interconnecting with other networks.

1987, Merit wins the National Science Foundation contract for NSFNET, and award is announced at a press conference attended by Michigan’s governor and other dignitaries.

1990, Merit renamed Merit Network, Inc. MichNet created to refer to Merit’s statewide network.

1995, Merit makes toll-free 800 service available to K-12 schools, public libraries, and community colleges.

1996, More than 92% of Michigan residents now have Internet access with a local phone call to one of MichNet's 131 shared dial-in sites.

1997, Merit receives funding for very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit, and Internet Performance Management and Analysis Project.

1998, Merit Advisory Council established to increase communication between affiliates and Merit Board.

1999, Merit creates Center to Support Technology in Education to promote use of learning technologies in K-12 schools.

2000, MichNet named one of four “ISPs That Stand Out” in Network Magazine’s December profile of leading Internet Providers.

2000, Merit launches Internet Routing Registry.

2002, Gigabit Ethernet service provided to Michigan State University, University of Michigan, and Wayne State University.

2003, Ontario Research Innovation Optical Network (ORION) and Merit sign historic agreement to interconnect across the border and collaborate on advanced technologies.

2005, Merit launches new security services, including remote port scan, system verification, remote assessment and on-site audit.

2005, Merit quadruples current capacity (from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps), while containing future costs and establishing Merit in the field of regional optical networking.

2006, lnternet2 members offered 100 gigabits per second, more than 10 times capacity of current lnternet2 backbone network.

2006, Merit launches MeritMail, offering secure mail services with spam and anti-virus protection for members and affiliates.


Things [presently 23.  Karl could find a list of members, when they joined, dates of occupancy in various buildings, etc.]

611 Church Street, site of Merit offices from 1968-1972, shared with the ConComp project.

Advanced Network and Services (ANS) is formed as non-profit organization to take over NSFNET backbone service, 1989.

Central Michigan University becomes the sixth Member, 1987.

Eastern Michigan University becomes the seventh Member, 1987.

EPA’s National Environmental Supercomputer Center served by T3 link from Ann Arbor to Bay City.

Ferris State University becomes the 13th member, 1998.

GateD Consortium acquired by Merit to continue developing modular routing software which is used to interconnect packet-switched networks worldwide, 1995.
 
HERMES is the name for the application supporting the user.  [messenger of Zeus and the Greek god of boundaries and travelers]

Institute of Science and Technology building, site of Merit offices from xxxx-xxxx.

Lake Superior State University becomes the 12th Member, 1997.

MeritMail, secure mail services with spam and anti-virus protection for members and affiliates, 2006.

Michigan Information Technology Center (MITC), site of Merit offices from 2005 to the present.

Michigan’s Teacher Technology (laptop) initiative.

Michigan Technology University becomes the eighth Member, 1988.

MichK12.org initiated by Merit as a service for teachers and other K-12 employees, 2003.

Network Operations Center staffed 24/7 at UM Computer Center Building, managed by
 (1988), and serves MichNet, the Routing Arbiter, U of M, and CICNet (1994).

North University Building, site of Merit offices from 1972-xxxx, shared with the UM Computing Center.

NSFNET is 24 times faster and serves more sites than the initial supercomputer network; it grows more than 20% each month, 1987.
NSFNET shifts to higher speed (T3), 1991.

Oakland University becomes fifth(?) member of Merit Network (1985)

Primary Communications Processor (PCP) connects host computers on the Merit Network.

Project Connect equips five Southeastern Michigan schools with LANs and connects them to MichNet, 1992.

Secondary Communications Processor (SCP) connects users at individual workstations to the PCP as so to host computers on the Merit Network.

TCI begins providing Internet service over its cable system in East Lansing and Okemos. Michigan State University and MichNet provide connectivity, 1995.

----
part of time line for comparison

1970
Requests for hardware bids are sent to 13 manufacturers.

Unhappy with vendors’ responses, MERIT sets out to design and build special interfaces to the universities' computers.

1971
MERIT Advisory Committee is formed:  three university computing center directors, three MERIT Associate Directors, Aupperle and Herzog. [shall I put in names of directors and associate directors?]

MERIT moves offices into the North University Building, shared with the UM Computing Center.

1972
Agreements reached regarding charges to local customers and with other host computing centers, allowing for deficits to be accumulated to be settled later.

From July through September, there were a total of 1543 successful connections, transmitting over 16 million characters of data.

Lawrence Von Tersch (Michigan State University) and Charles Overberger (University of Michigan) join the Board.  [if we name these we should be naming others.]

HERMES is chosen as the name for the application supporting the user.  [messenger of Zeus and the Greek god of boundaries and travelers]

Work starts on providing the first dial-up connections to an inter-computer network.

1977
Uses of microcomputers as personal computers in education is planned in detail via CONFER and the network.

1978
MERIT develops new hardware interface for WMU and future expansion via the Primary Communications Processor (PCP).

Merit’s network becomes the first to support both a connection-based protocol suite (X.25) and the connectionless TCP/IP suite.

1984
Merit introduces outbound service to Telenet and Autonet,

1985
Oakland University becomes fifth(?) member of Merit Network.

1986
Merit uses satellite link to connect University of Michigan to supercomputer centers in San Diego and Pittsburgh.

1987
Central Michigan University, Eastern Michigan University, and Michigan Technology University join as Members.

Merit, IBM and MCI submit proposal which wins the NSFNET competition.

National Science Foundation announces the award at a press conference attended by Michigan’s governor and other dignitaries.

1988
NSFNET is 24 times faster and serves more sites than the initial supercomputer network; it grows more than 20% each month.

Network Operations Center staffed 24/7 at UM Computer Center Building, managed by Dale Johnson.

1989

1990
Merit renamed Merit Network, Inc. MichNet created to refer to Merit’s statewide network.

The non-profit Advanced Network and Services (ANS) formed and takes over NSFNET backbone service.

1991
NSFNET network shifts to higher speed (T3).

MichNet expands to 22 Affiliates.

1992
Project Connect equips five Southeastern Michigan schools with LANs and connects them to MichNet.

NSF funds MichNet backbone upgrade.

MichNet connects Michigan Bell Packet Switching Network in the Upper Peninsula.

1993
Merit expands to ten Members and 55 affiliates, with 94 MichNet attachments at 76 locations.

Data service to Michigan Technological University upgraded to T1.

Merit launches new service for online information delivery, with The Chronicle of Higher Education as its first customer.

1994
All Michigan public universities are now served by MichNet.

Merit now has 11 members and 132 affiliates, with 189 MichNet attachments at 122 locations.

New K-12 outreach program creates six regional K-12 groups, called Hubs, which allows users to connect with MichNet dial-in service.

Network Operations Center now serves MichNet, the Routing Arbiter, U of M, and CICNet.

1995
Merit now has 191 Affiliates, with 273 MichNet attachments at 162 locations.

Merit acquires the GateD Consortium from Cornell University, assuming responsibility for developing the popular “GateDaemon” modular routing software, which is used to interconnect packet-switched networks worldwide.

Merit makes toll-free 800 service available to K-12 schools, public libraries, and community colleges.

TCI begins providing Internet service over its cable system in East Lansing and Okemos. Michigan State University and MichNet provide connectivity.

T3 link between Bay City and Ann Arbor added to serve the U.S. EPA’s National Environmental Supercomputer Center.

1996
Merit now has 11 members and 405 affiliates, with 289 MichNet attachments at 213 locations.

MichNet now has 131 shared dial-in sites; more than 92% of Michigan residents have Internet access with a local phone call.

Michigan Public Service Commission approves funding for SupportNet, Merit’s training and help desk.

In October, 34 research universities announce “lnternet2,” a collaborative effort to build the next generation Internet 100 times faster than today’s network.
----
1997
Lake Superior State University becomes 12th Merit Member.

Merit introduces virtual Web hosting, server colocation, and internet server configuration.

Merit receives funding for very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit, and Internet Performance Management and Analysis Project.

1998
Ferris State University becomes Merit’s 13th member; all public universities are now members.

Merit Advisory Council established to increase communication between affiliates and Merit Board.

1999
Merit has 13 members and 163 affiliates with 401 attachments from 353 separate locations.

Merit creates Center to Support Technology in Education to promote use of learning technologies in K-12 schools.

First MichNet annual meeting held at CMU in Mt. Pleasant.

2000
Merit has 13 members and 230 affiliates, with 422 attachments at 379 locations.

Merit provides dial-in service to all hardware vendors participating in Michigan’s Teacher Technology (laptop) initiative.

Merit provides Internet connectivity for Michigan Department of State services through customer service kiosks in shopping malls.

2000
Merit launches Internet Routing Registry.

Merit is selected for third time as MiCTA’s endorsed ISP for Michigan.

MichNet named one of four “ISPs That Stand Out” in Network Magazine’s December profile of leading Internet Providers.

Merit provides K-12 schools and other educational organizations access to lnternet2.

MichNet provides local call access to 98% of Michigan population.

2002
Governor Engler announces plan for the Michigan Information Technology Center (MITC), the new home of Merit and lnternet2.

Gigabit Ethernet service provided to Michigan State University, University of Michigan, and Wayne State University.

Digital video collection, aligned to curriculum standards in Michigan Teacher Network, established as part of the National Science Digital Library.

2003
Merit initiates MichK12.org service for teachers and other K-12 employees.

MichNet engineers adapt standard optical switch, splitting single wavelengths into two to reduce costs and double bandwidth capacity on metropolitan fiber rings.

Merit brings the total number of Michigan lnternet2 participants to 38.

The Ontario Research Innovation Optical Network (ORION) and Merit sign historic agreement to interconnect across the border and collaborate on advanced technologies.

Merit announces new regional fiber rings and participates in planning Michigan Lambda Rail (MiLR).

2005
Merit Network and lnternet2 move into new Michigan Information Technology Center (MITC).

In February, Merit launches new security services, including remote port scan, system verification, remote assessment and on-site audit.

Merit quadruples current capacity (from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps), while containing future costs and establishing Merit in the field of regional optical networking.

2006
Merit and the Ontario Research and Innovation Optical Network (ORION) interconnect high-speed optical research and education networks.

lnternet2 members offered 100 gigabits per second, more than 10 times capacity of current lnternet2 backbone network.

Merit launches MeritMail, offering secure mail services with spam and anti-virus protection for members and affiliates.

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